Material Morphosis: Trajectories, Connectivities, and Transformations in Fashion and Design
While phenomena of metamorphosis have been associated with predominantly negative connotations within a European frame of reference (namely as mere imitation, deceit, or substitute), they also point towards another meaning, revealing a principle that stresses the significance of materiality as ‘sujet’. Recently, techniques such as sampling have fostered new interpretations of such creative transfers. Thus, material metamorphoses frequently happen to be also media metamorphoses.
The focus on substance and materialities seems to relate to African notions of classification – material is recognized here as both textile fabric and oral transmission of “matter”: objects are often classified according to certain characteristics of materiality and semantics and not only to their formal qualities. The ideational and non-material can become attached to the material, whereas in other contexts certain materialities are reserved for privileged groups or persons.
Since precolonial times, fabrics as objects of transcontinental and transregional trade and exchange play a crucial role in the making and strengthening of social ties and, thus, of status and identities. The importance of material is also reflected in contemporary fashion and design where global belonging as well as local situatedness are claimed. The conscious choice of materials and techniques of labels like, for example, Xuly Bët, Laduma or Black Coffee, refers to the material expression of a (pan-) African and decolonial legacy, both critical and playful.
In contemporary design and art, material morphoses find expression in processes of modernization, democratization, nobilitation, and re-evaluation; they also relate to material innovation and new manufacturing techniques, as well as to miniaturizations (reductions, compressions, condensations) found in architecture and furniture design.
We suggest that the analytical lens of material morphosis (Stoffwechsel) can foster new perspectives when examining cultures of materiality, when further exploring the “dense materiality” of cloth as social skin, as material object or archive, or when tracing “matter” and its regional and transcontinental entanglements in the past, present and future.
Time: Friday, 29/06/2018, 4.30 - 6.30 pm
Venue: Hörsaalgebäude, HS 17
Kerstin Pinther (University of Munich)
Alexandra Weigand (University of Munich)
Kristin Kastner (University of Munich)
Chonja Lee (University of Bern, Switzerland)
Umma Musa (University of Hamburg)
Adwoa Owusuaa Bobie (University of Basel, Switzerland)
Alexandra Weigand (University of Munich)
Trading Fashion for Slaves: Ornaments of Printed Cottons, Their Morphosis, and Agency
Historians have emphasized the circulation of printed cottons between Europe and India, including the Atlantic Space. In this paper, however, I would like to inscribe the agency of the African consumers at the centre of this story and analyse the communication between buyer, seller, and maker in a wide spanning contact zone. Designed specifically for the West African market, the European drawers and engravers would translate European scenes in pseudo-African contexts, freely imagine African people and landscapes, and develop adaptations of African iconography with specific patterns, colours and symbols embedded in local cultures and religions. These images of and for the other are material evidence of an otherwise difficult to trace discourse around a cultural transfer for economic reasons. Ornaments can oscillate between pictures and patterns and, in these specific cases, they potentially bear encoded religious meaning to the customer. Ornamental semantics of textiles, as means for social communication, are at challenge in this example, with the European makers supposedly not understanding what they drew. Questions of agency are multifold: the printed cottons are playing a key role among the commodities to oppress and enslave people, the African customers are setting the agenda for the prints through their market power, and the ornaments themselves are hiding potential images. Finally, I would like to include the religious historical background with the protestant makers reproducing religious imagery in textiles for the African market, while missionaries, at the same time, are trying to get rid of them. The printed cottons are intermediaries between categories with their material status between fabric and print, intermedia play in mimicry of other textiles and craft, and intercultural morphosis.
Muslim Women, Urban Visibility, and Modern Fashion in Northern Nigeria
This paper examines how modern fashion designs for Muslim Hausa women in northern Nigeria acquire individual names. Muslim Hausa women in urban cities in northern Nigeria adorn themselves with locally designed clothing from a variety of textile and fabric materials. These materials originate mostly from international markets and assume added value for the women due to their designs. The resulting outfits are fashionably cut to flaunt the female body, in a social culture that emphasizes the sacredness of the female body form through the enforcement of wearing hijab. Employing subtle subterfuge to challenge the dominant views of the visibility of the Muslim female form, women create names for the various designs that are expressed as rebellious. An example is a design referred to as ‘Baba na balaga’ (Sugar dad, I am ripe). This created a social debate in northern Nigeria on the focus of the blame of such un-Islamic dressing – parents, tailors, or the wearers themselves. The paper considers the dynamics of women’s fashion design against the backdrop of Muslim social Hausa culture, how these fashions are viewed within the society, and the subversions employed by their wearers as form of expressing liberated urban female sexual identity.
Adwoa Owusuaa Bobie
Rebranding Africa, Reclothing Africa
Fashion and Africa are perceived as two opposing ends, as the former connotes modernity while the latter tradition. This perception feeds into sociologists’ hesitation to study fashion in contemporary times, being regarded more as an anthropological or historical field of study. However, the developments of fashion especially on the African continent in present times demands the attention of all disciplines and, more importantly, the sociologist. Joining the interlocutor of ‘Africa rising’ with its major economic mark of unprecedented rise in middle class population, I argue that this middle-class population, with their educational background, exposure, and improved purchasing power, is driving, among other things, developments in the African fashion industry: creativity, innovation, and expansion. Nigeria, a miniature representative of African economic boost, the biggest economy, arguably the country with most middle-class population, and a fashion giant on the continent, is the area of study. The research asks two questions: what is the current trend of fashion in Nigeria and how is the middle class related to this trend? This qualitative study seeks insight into the structure, technicalities, and trends emanating from Nigerian fashion industry and asks how the increase or change in the lifestyle of a group of people (middle-class) has influenced the fashion system. Interviews and observation were employed in data collection from fashion designers, customers, and other fashion related professionals. Purposive, snowballing, and accidental sampling methods guided sample selection.
Fashion as Archive – Tracing Material Morphoses in Contemporary Fashion Design in Lagos
When looking at a young generation of internationally operating fashion designers based in Lagos, Nigeria, a strong reference to local traditions can be noticed: Kelechi Odu, I.AM.ISIGO, Kenneth Ize, Orange Culture, and others commute between the continents and connect conceptual approaches on fashion with recourse to their own cultural heritage. Local materials, techniques, patterns, and forms are referenced but not as mere ‘retro-trends’ in the sense of a romantic nostalgia for the past. On the contrary, these designers use the method of material morphosis to trace back their roots to bring the past into the present in new interpretations. The archive, understood with Foucault, is not a place where history is displayed but the place where history is coded and where knowledge is produced. In this paper, I propose to consider fashion as a visual and material archive, as a possibility to group together different formal and narrative influences, as a visualization and manifestation of history in the object. With Walter Benjamin, who indicated the sociopolitical significance of fashion, I ask whether fashion does not only reflect social change but can be a social force in itself. Material morphosis then –when understood as actualization, transformation, and recoding– would be its strategy.