P 61

Connecting Through Transnational Markets in Africa: When Public Policy Fails to Regulate Local and Global Actors in the Demand-Supply Chain of Goods and Services in Demand

Panel abstract
The participation of Africa in the globalization process has come with complex and varied forms of connections between local and global markets within Africa and the rest of the Global South. One dominant aspect of connectivity is global operators linking up with those at local level to market goods and services in disregard of the state approval. Across the continent, new patterns of production and consumptions of certain commodities in high demand have given rise to Asian-linked supply chains (China, Indian, Malaysia, and Pakistan) that have in some circumstances overtaken state regulation or diminish its legislation capacity. While there could be some benefits accruing to local markets involved in those connections, alarming concerns over illicit market transactions have been brought to the fore in the public debates. Market capture by certain operators capable of networking with those at the global level has also been identified as a matter of concern. The panel empirically addresses such concerns from the lenses of the interface between economic informality and public policy which is situated where local markets connect with global markets. More specifically, the panel interrogates ways in which the dynamics of connections take place, the nature of actors and the public management of the outcomes that come from these connections.
Focusing on the connection with Asian countries, the markets of interest for the panel are:

  • artisanal fisheries (coastal and inland) with reference to overfishing, illegal fishing and protection of fish species,
  • counterfeit drugs with reference to legislation and law enforcement,
  • popular tourism with respect to conservation and fragile ecosystems,
  • forest logging with respect to the wellbeing of the community at large,
  • mineral extraction with respect to the environment and natural resources,
  • labour recruitment with reference to infrastructure construction and oil industry.

Time: Saturday, 30/06/2018, 8.30 - 10.30 am
Venue: Hörsaalgebäude, HS 15

Convenor
Gabriel Tati (University of the Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa)

Panellists
Sean Thulani Sithole (University of the Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa)
Florence Yapo and Anne Marilyse Kouadio (École Normale Supérieure d’Abidjan, Ivory Coast)
Gabriel Tati and Yamkela Majikiljela (University of the Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa)
Simone Nadège Assah Kuete (Ministry of Trade, Cameroon)
 

Paper abstracts

Sean Thulani Sithole
The Impact of Regulations, Policies, and Governance of Artisanal Fisheries on the Livelihoods of Small-Scale Fisheries: Case Study of Kariba Communities in Zimbabwe

In recent times, the artisanal fisheries practice, also called small-scale fisheries, has been an important source of food for the poor and poverty-stricken communities in the Global South. Estimates by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) in 2017, indicate that 37 million people are employed in fishing and fish farming. In addition, approximately 100 million people are employed in fish related practices. A 2014 report by The High-Level Panel of Experts on Food Security and Nutrition indicated that globally 158 million tonnes of fish were produced in 2012, and 136 million tonnes were used for human intake. In the developing world fish is an important source of sustainable livelihoods, household consumption and nutritious food. However, one critical issue facing small-scale fisheries is illegal fishing which in turn also result in overfishing and is a danger to the extinction of some species of fish. Activities of artisanal fisheries are usually unreported and unregulated. Globally, many policies have intended to deal with overfishing and illegal fishing. This paper will review controversies around the importance of small-scale fisheries vasa-vis the global regulations, policies and legislation around artisanal fisheries. The research will be a desktop research of artisanal fishery communities in Lake Kariba, Zimbabwe. The main research question is the impact of the legislation and governance of small-scale fisheries on the livelihoods, food needs and income generation for communities that practice artisanal fisheries.

Germain Ngoie Tshibambe
‘Dawa Bei Ya Chini Sana!’: Agency and the Demand-Supply Chain of Goods Through In-Street Drugstores in a Postcolonial City – the Case of Lubumbashi

Dynamics of life in the postcolonial cities turn around the conflict between the formalization and the informalization of activities. If in some areas of cities, the State goes on in controlling business markets, the suburbs and the peri-urban milieus, which are part of the cities, are entangled in the intricacies of informal activities. Such is the case of the Lubumbashi city where the urban geography discloses two spaces within which, on the one hand, State control tries to regulate activities in excluding black markets and, on the other hand, statelessness gives open way to any sort of business. The Commune of Kenya is the core area disclosing the statelessness that paves the way to the persistence of those in-street sailors who offer many goods to people. Among these goods, we find drugs. These in-street drugstores are very small business through which the owner puts at the level of the ground all his/her stock of marketable drugs he/she offers at low negotiable pricing. This low negotiable pricing is well explained by the outcry heralded in Swahili, ‘Dawa bei ya Chini Sana’ (Buy this drug at the very low price). As marketable drugs are goods for life in case they are well managed, they can also push to death. State authorities are facing a challenge to control these in-street drugstores. This challenge is not about to be under control. Meanwhile, these sellers of the ‘merchandises for death’ are proliferating in these suburban areas. While crossing the market place in Kenya, these drugstores occupy many avenues. This paper aims at grasping this category of businessmen and businesswomen who are trying to fend for themselves in selling the ‘merchandises for life or for death’ offered to precarious people indeed. It is worth noticing that these drugs will not be sold out by rich people but unfortunately by the descamisados, those people who are living on the margins with poverty and precariousness. Having said this, four research questions will be asked. i) What is the profile of those people who are doing business in these in-street drugstores? ii) How do they operate to get stocks of drugs for keeping alive their business and how are they in connection with local or global actors? iii) How do they escape the State control and assault against them? iv) Is there any risk for them to being part of piracy and producing fake drugs? I will use qualitative methods in order to get data for this paper. Therefore, I will use ethnographic observation coupled to life stories, which will lead me to get information from some businessmen/businesswomen engaged in this commerce. The semi-structured interviews will help me enlighten some spans of problems in this issue. I will also get talks, first, with the State officers in charge of the public health sector; second, with the owners of recognized pharmacies; and, finally, with some inhabitants of Lubumbashi in order to get their points of views concerning this practice of selling drugs on/in the street without safety for goods.

Florence Yapo and Anne Marilyse Kouadio
Woman Marketing Food Products and Population Dynamics in Yopougon Attié-Abidjan

Sub-Saharan Africa has experienced an accelerated urban growth since the end of the Second World War and particularly since the 1960s. This, despite a non-negligible use of imports, has led to a profound transformation in the countryside. Food production is becoming more and more cash crops. From the smallest village to the urban district, the market is above all the business of women. It is for them a source of financial autonomy and income. The food trade has picked up since the 1980s. The various economic and socio-economic crises that have shaken Côte d'Ivoire have favoured the migration of women. The latter, who came from rural areas and besieged localities, sought refuge with relatives living in the city of Abidjan. Yopougon, Abidjan's western gateway, saw them swept over his space. At the same time, there has been an increase in the number of commercial food markets in this municipality over the years: from 3 in 1980, to more than 34, including 17 major markets. Is there a causal link between women's migration to Yopougon and the proliferation of these markets? The answer to this question is the objective of our article, which is based on documentary data and mainly on surveys conducted in Yopougon-Attié, one of the largest neighbourhoods in terms of demographic size and economic and commercial weight. The paper shows that there is a close link between the migration of women in this neighbourhood and the marketing of food products. In addition, the lack of space in the markets favours an anarchic occupation of public spaces by the women traders.

Gabriel Tati and Yamkela Majikiljela
From Artisanal to Predatory Fishers: How the Connections of Local Fisheries with the Asian Markets Are Disseminating the Shark Population in the Coastal Zone of Pointe-Noire (Congo Brazzaville)

The paper examines the extent to which shark fishing has intensified over the past years and the involvement of local fishers and international traders in this process. It also highlights the drivers of this fishing activity by bringing to the fore the market connections between the local and international actors. The coastal zone of Congo Brazzaville, where the second larger city of Pointe-Noire is located, is environmentally recognised as one of the largest shark sanctuaries in the world. The coastal zone, along with the Atlantic Ocean, stretches between the enclave of Cabinda and the Congo’s border with Gabon. Allying with the international action for the protection of sharks regarded as marine species under threat of extinction, Congo banned shark fishing in 2000 for the purpose of large commercial scale. Yet, despite, the ban, shark fishing has gone unabated and, over the years, it has reached levels that were unprecedented before the banning. Using visual observations carried out on landed sites and in-depth interviews, the paper identifies some of the drivers of the growing shark fishing at three levels. The first level is that of the local fishers involved in catching sharks at high sea. These are migrant fishermen and most of them have originated from West Africa. For many years, their fishing techniques were mainly artisanal and shark fishing was not their primary activity. With the depletion of catches of other fish species, they turned to more sophisticated and intensive fishing equipment (engine gear, nets, boats…) to catch species like a shark at high sea. Salted shark trading has become one of the most traded food products in the market places of cities across the country. Nationally, despite the ban, the demand for salted shark meat has also contributed to the fishing of sharks. At the international level, and in recent years, shark catches have also been driven by demands for thin in distant Asian markets. As in most parts of Asia, shark thins have declined due to over exploitation of shark population and bans imposed on shark catches. Prices have jumped. For Asian traders, outsourcing the supply of shark thins to African locations has been an alternative to locally harvested ones. To overcome the ban imposed in Congo, Asian traders have arranged with local fishers to get supplies of thins in informal ways. This informal market of shark, therefore, connects local fishers to international markets in Asia. It is a market propelled by the absence of state control. Due to lack of monitoring of artisanal fishing activities along the coastal line, the authority does not enforce the ban on shark fishing as a law.

Simone Nadège Assah Kuete
Nouvelles concessions forestières au Cameroun et leurs exploitations: le cas des compagnies chinoises

  • Les débuts d’exploitation forestière au Cameroun (date d’exploitation européenne et chinoise).
  • Evolution de la législation visant le secteur forestier en Europe et les implications les implications sont-elles observées ou pas ? (Législation portant organisation de l’exploitation forestière). AGOA, Georges Bush et la loi sur l’exploitation des ressources par les compagnies américaines : poursuivre ces compagnies dans les tribunaux occidentaux même par les ONG en cas de corruption ou de détournement.
  • Observation des faits sur le terrain et comment cela a affecté les populations locales.
  • Comment l’exploitation forestière peut-elle impacter les populations locales (impacts directs: environnement (pharmacopée, cueillette des fruits et légumes absence de savane la viande vient de la brousse du coup détruire la forêt les détruit aussi en quelque sorte) nécessaire d’une politique d’accompagnement pour limiter les effets néfastes sur les populations locales). Impacts indirects (déforestation qui entraine l’érosion des sols.
  • Réaction des administrations locales pour compenser ces effets néfastes (redevance forestière, etc.)